Duchy of Milan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire, by then a decentralised entity, and was ruled by several dynasties, most of them major powers from outside
Italy. Although the Duchy's territory varied over the centuries, it generally covered much of Lombardy, including both Milan and Pavia, the traditional centers of the old Kingdom of Italy. Parma was also a part of the Duchy until it was split off into its own Duchy in the 16th century.
The Duchy was created in 1395 for Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. When the Visconti became extinct in 1447, Milan declared itself a republic, despite the fact that the Duke of Orleans was the legitimate heir by treaty. Orleans proved unable to make good his claim, but the republic was
nevertheless short-lived. The adventurer Francesco Sforza, who married the last Visconti's illegitimate daughter, seized Milan in 1450 and made himself Duke.
In 1498 the Duke of Orleans became King of France as Louis XII, and immediately sought to make good his father's claims to Milan. He invaded in 1499 and soon ousted Lodovico Sforza. The French ruled the Duchy until 1513, when they were ousted by the Swiss, who put Lodovico's son Massimiliano on the throne. Massimiliano did not last very long. The French, now under Francis I, again invaded in 1515 and reasserted their control at the Battle of Marignano, and making Massimiliano their prisoner. The French were again driven out in 1521, this time by the Austrians, who installed Massimiliano's younger brother, Francesco II Sforza.
Following the decisive French defeat at Pavia in 1525, which seemed to leave the Imperial forces of Charles V dominant in Italy, Francesco joined the League of Cognac against the Emperor along with Venice, Florence the Pope, and the French. This resulted quickly in his own expulsion from Milan by Imperial forces, but he managed
to remain in control of various other cities in the Duchy, and was again restored to Milan itself by the peace concluded at
Cambrai in 1529.
When Francesco died without heirs in 1535, the question of succession again arose, with both the Emperor and the King of France claiming the Duchy,
leading to more wars. The Emperor held the Duchy throughout, eventually investing it on his son Philip. The possession of the Duchy by Spain was finally recognized by the French in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559.
The Duchy of Milan remained in Spanish hands until the War of the Spanish Succession in the early 18th century, when it was conquered by the Austrians. The Treaty of Baden which ended the war in 1714 ceded Milan to Austria. The Duchy remained in Austrian hands until it was overrun by the French army
of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796. The Duchy was ceded by Austria in the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, and formed the central part of the new Cisalpine Republic.
After the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna on 9 June 1815, the Duchy of Milan wasn't restored, but became part of the Austrian ruled Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. This Kingdom ceased to exist when the remaining portion of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.
List of Governors of the Duchy of Milan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Governor of Milan ruled the Duchy of Milan as a representative of the King of Spain (1535–1706) and the Archduke of Austria (1706–1796) and (1799–1800). The first governor was appointed after the death of the last
duke of the House of Sforza, Francesco II.
- Antonio de Leyva, Prince of Ascoli 1535–1536, died in office
- Cardinal Marino Caracciolo 1536–1538, civil, died in office
- Alfonso d'Avalos d'Aquino, Marquis of Vasto 1538–1546, military
- Ferdinando Gonzaga, Prince of Molfetta, Duke of Ariano 1546–1555
- Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba 1555–1556
- Cristoforo Madruzzo 1556–1557
- Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba 1558–1560, first term
- Francesco Ferdinando d'Ávalos d'Aquino, Marquis of Pescara 1560–1563
- Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba 1563–1564, second term
- Gabriel de la Cueva, Duke of Albuquerque 1564–1571, died in office
- Álvaro de Sande 1571–1572
- Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens 1572–1573
- Antonio de Guzmán, Marquis of Ayamonte 1573–1580, died in office
- Sancho de Guevara y Padilla 1580–1583
- Carlos de Aragón, Prince of Castelvetrano 1583–1592
- Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frias 1592–1595, first term
- Don Pedro de Padilla 1595–1595
- Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frias 1595–1600, second term
- Pedro Enríquez de Acevedo, Count of Fuentes 1600–1610, died in office
- Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frias 1610–1612, third term
- Juan de Mendoza, Marquis de la Hinoyosa 1612–1616
- Pedro de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca 1616–1618
- Gómez Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, Duke of Feria 1618–1625, first term
- Gonzalo Fernandez de Córdoba 1625–1629
- Ambrosio Spinola, marqués de los Balbases 1629–1630, died in office
- Álvaro de Bazán, Marquis of Santa Cruz 1630–1631
- Gómez Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, Duke of Feria 1631–1633, second term
- Ferdinand, the Cardinal–Infant 1633–1634
- Cardinal Gil de Albornoz 1634–1635
- Diego Felipe de Guzmán, Marquis of Leganés 1635–1636, first term
- Fernando Enríquez d'Affan de la Riviera, Duke of Alcalà 1636, died in office
- Diego Felipe de Guzmán, Marquis of Leganés 1636–1641, second term
- Juan de Velasco, Count of Sirvela 1641–1643
- Antonio Sancho Davila, Marquis of Velada 1643–1646
- Bernardino Fernández de Velasco, 6th Duke of Frias 1646–1648
- Luis de Benavides Carrillo, Marquis of Caracena 1648–1656
- Cardinal Teodoro Trivulzio 1656–1656
- Alfonso Pérez de Vivero, Count of Fuensaldaña 1656–1660
- Francesco Gaetani, Duke of Sermoneta 1660–1662
- Luis de Guzmán Ponce de Leon 1662–1668, died in office
- Paolo Spinola, Marquis of Los Balbases 1668–1668, first term
- Francisco de Orozco, Marquis of Olias 1668–1668
- Paolo Spinola, Marquis of Los Balbases 1669–1670, second term
- Gaspar Tellez Girón, Duke of Osuna 1670–1674
- Claude Lamoral, Prince of Ligne 1674–1678
- Juan Henríquez de Cabrera, Count of Melgar 1678–1686
- Antonio López de Ayala Velasco y Cardeñas, Count of Fuensalida 1686–1691
- Diego Felipe de Guzmán, Marquies of Leganés 1691–1698
- Prince Charles Henry de Lorraine-Vaudemont 1698–1706
Milan fell to the Austrian army on September 26, 1706 during the War of the Spanish Succession. The Austrian rule was confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht.
The Austrians abandoned Milan after the Battle of Marengo and the duchy was incorporated again in the Cisalpine Republic.
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